history of computer networks and their classification History of Computer Networks and its development
The history of computer networks stems from the birth of the concept of computer networks in 1940 in America which was conceived by a MODEL I computer development project in Bell laboratories and a Harvard University research group led by professor Howard Aiken. At first the project only wanted to use a computer that had to be shared. To work on a number of processes without wasting a lot of empty time a process is made (Batch Processing), so that several programs can be run on a computer with a queue rule.
Then in 1950 when the type of computer began to develop, until the creation of super computers, then a computer had to serve several available places (terminals), for that was found the concept of time-based process distribution known as the TSS (Time Sharing System). So for the first time a computer network was applied.
In a TSS system, several terminals are connected in series to a computer or other device that is connected to a computer (host or server) network. In the TSS process began to appear a combination of computer technology and telecommunications technology which initially developed separately. The US Department of Defense decided to conduct research aimed at connecting a number of computers to form organic networks in 1969. This research program was known as the ARPANET.
In 1970, more than 10 computers were successfully connected to each other so that they could communicate with each other and form a network. And in 1970 it was also after the workload increased and the price of large computer devices began to feel very expensive, so the concept of Distributed Processing began to be used.
In this process several host computers do a large job in parallel to serve several terminals connected in series in each host computer. In the distribution process, it is absolutely necessary to have a deep combination of computer and telecommunications technology, because in addition to the processes that must be distributed, all host computers must serve their terminals in one command from the central computer.
Computer University College in London is the first computer outside America to become a member of the Arpanet network. In the same year, namely in 1973, two computer experts namely Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn presented a larger idea, which became the forerunner of the thinking of the International Network (Internet). This idea was presented for the first time at the University of Sussex. The next historical day was March 26, 1976, when the Queen of England managed to send electronic mail from the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment in Malvern.
A year later, more than 100 computers joined the ARPANET to form a network or network. Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis and Steve Bellovin, created the first newsgroups that were named the USENET (User Network) in 1979. In 1981, France Telecom created something new by launching the first television telephone, where people could call each other who were also connected with video link.
Along with the increasing number of computers that form networks, an official protocol is needed that can be recognized and accepted by all networks. For that reason, in 1982 a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) was formed or better known as the Internet Protocol (IP) that we know today. Meanwhile, in Europe a similar network emerged known as the Europe Network (EUNET) which included the Netherlands, England, Denmark and Sweden. This EUNET network provides USENET electronic mail and newsgroup services.
To homogenize addresses on existing computer networks, in 1984 a Domain Naming System or domain name system was introduced, which we now know as DNS. Computers that are connected to existing networks have exceeded more than 1000 computers. In 1987, the number of computers connected to the network jumped 10-fold to over 10,000.
Computer networks continued to develop in 1988, Jarkko Oikarinen, a Finnish national, discovered and introduced Internet Relay Chat, or better known as IRC, which allows two or more computer users to interact directly with sending messages (chatting).
As a result, a year later the number of interconnected computers jumped 10 times less than 100,000 computers formed a network. Mid-1990 was the most historic year, when Tim Berners Lee designed a program of editors and explorers who could dominate computers with one another by forming networks. This program is called Waring Wera Wanua or the World Wide Web. Computers that are connected to each other form a network that has exceeded a million computers in 1992. And in the same year the term surf (surfing) emerged.
History of Computer Networks and their classification
Computer network classification:
Classification of computer networks based on geography, computer networks are divided into:
Local area network or Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan area network or Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide area network or Wide Area Network (WAN).
The local area network is a privately owned network within a building or place that has a size of 1 to 10 kilometers. LANs are often used to connect personal computers and workstations in the offices of a company or factories to use resources (such as printers) and exchange information.
While the metropolitan area network is an expansion of the LAN network so that it covers a fairly large city, consisting of dozens of buildings within 10-50 kilometers. The transmission cable used is a fiber optic cable (Coaxial Cable). Wide area network Is a network between cities, between provinces, between countries, even between continents. The distance can cover the entire world, for example a network that connects all banks in Indonesia, or a network that connects all Indonesian Representative Offices throughout the world. The main transmission media is satellite communication, but many rely on fiber-optic connections between countries.
Classification of computer networks based on functions, divided into:
Client-server network (Peer-to-peer) Network
The client-server network basically has one computer that is prepared as a server (server) from another computer as a client (client). All resource service requests from the client computer must be passed to the server computer, the server computer that will manage the service. If communication service requests are very busy, even more than one computer can be prepared to become a server, so there is a division of tasks, such as file-server, print-server, database server and so on. Of course the configuration of the server computer is usually more than the configuration of the client computer both in terms of memory capacity, hard disk capacity, and processor speed.
While network end-to-peer (peer-to-peer) is shown by computers supporting each other, so that each computer can request shared use of resources from other computers, as well as must be ready to serve requests from other computers. This network model can usually only be applied to a number of computers that are not too many, a maximum of 25, because communication will be complicated and jammed when the computer is too much.
Classification of computer networks based on network topology, computer networks can be divided into:
Bus topology Star topology Ring topology Mesh topology Tree topology Linear topology Classification of computer networks based on the distribution of information sources or data:
1. Centralized network
This network consists of a client computer and a server where the client computer functions as an intermediary to access sources of information / data originating from one server computer.
2. Distributed networks
It is a combination of several centralized networks so that there are several server computers that are interconnected with clients forming certain network systems.
Classification of computer networks based on data transmission media:
1. Wired Network
In this network, connecting a computer with another computer requires a network cable. Network cable functions in sending information in the form of electrical signals between network computers.
2. Wireless network (Wi-Fi)
Is a network with a medium in the form of electromagnetic waves. This network does not require a cable to connect between computers because it uses electromagnetic waves that will send information signals between network computers.